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Interview Questions For Quality Assurance
Software Quality Assurance (SQA) represents all the activities and procedures that focus on the entire software development process. The aim is to reduce the risk of causing defects and errors in the final product before release. This is done by designing, implementing and maintaining procedures that help software developers and testers do their work in the most efficient way.
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Software quality control (SQC), unlike SQA, is entirely product-based. The aim of SQC is to carry out test activities on the final product to verify that the product being developed is in accordance with the customer’s needs and expectations.
You have an input field that accepts an integer. The valid input is a positive two-digit integer. Determination of test cases using equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis testing techniques.
Very often in QA it is not practical to test all possible test cases for each scenario. In the case of a valid input that is a positive two-digit integer, there are already 90 valid test cases, and there are many more invalid test cases. In such situations, a better way of selecting test cases is needed, while ensuring that all scenarios are covered.
Equivalence partition testing is a software testing technique that partitions test data in such a way that the system under test will perform the same for one input from the entire partition. For the current example, we can create four partitions:
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Boundary value analysis testing is a software testing technique that uses extreme values or boundaries between partitions as inputs for test cases.
An essential part of testing is the validation of results. In test automation, throughout each test case, we run validation checks to ensure we get the correct results.
Assert and validate command groups check whether the given conditions are true. The difference is what happens if the condition is false and the check fails. When an assert command fails, the code that follows it will not be executed and the test will break immediately. On the other hand, when an authentication command fails, the code will continue to execute regardless.
We use assert commands when the code that follows them depends on their success. e.g. we only want to perform actions on a page if we are logged in as an admin user. In that case, we’ll assert that the currently logged-in user is equal to the admin user, and the test code will only run if that condition is met – otherwise there’s no point, because we know we’re testing in the wrong environment.
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We use validation commands when the code can be executed after them regardless of the condition that is met. e.g. check website title: We will make sure that the page title is as expected, and we will record the result of the validation command. An incorrect title alone should not affect the rest of what is tested.
Verification and validation are two basic terms in quality assurance that are often mistakenly interchanged. When it comes to developing the right answer, we can ask ourselves two questions:
First, we must ensure that the system we are building works and has all the necessary parts in accordance with the specified requirements. This process is called authentication. After that, at the end of the software development process, we will focus our efforts on ensuring that the system meets the needs and expectations of the end user, in a process known as validation.
Verification and validation are essential in the quality assurance process, as both will make it possible to identify errors in a different way. Validation identifies errors in the specification documentation, while verification finds errors in the software’s implementation.
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What is the difference between severity and priority? Give examples of high and low priority problems versus low severity and high priority problems.
The problem’s severity and problem priority are important for correct problem handling. Severity represents the severity of the problem, while priority represents how quickly the problem should be resolved.
Severity is a precisely defined characteristic as it is based on how the problem affects the end users. If the end user can interact with the application normally and normal use of the application is not impeded, the severity level is low. However, if the end user encounters application crashes or similar issues while using the application, the severity level increases to high.
Is defined by the individual judgment of a responsible person according to the specified requirements. Generally, the priority increases as the problem is more accessible to the end user.
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There are many benefits to test automation, and test cases should be automated whenever possible and appropriate. However, there are some scenarios when test automation is not better and manual testing is a better option:
RTM is a document that shows the relationship between test cases (written by the QA engineer) and the business/technical requirements (specified by the client or development team.) The main idea of RTM is to ensure that all requirements are covered with test cases, thus ensuring that no functionality is tested.
With the help of RTM, we can confirm 100 percent test coverage of the business and technical requirements, as well as get a clear overview of deficiencies and implementation status. It undoubtedly highlights any missing requirements and/or inconsistencies in the documentation.
RTMs provide deeper insight into QA work and the impact it has on QA engineers to review and rework test cases.
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Theoretically, for some products and cases, testing activities may take a large amount of resources, and may also be impossible or impractical. In order to have a proper quality assurance process – one where we can confidently conclude that the product is ready for consumers – we need to be able to tell when we have finished testing.
This is where we use an exit criteria document, which shows the conditions that must be met before the product is released. Exit criteria are defined in the test planning phase and allow QA managers and test engineers to build an effective and efficient QA process that will comply with the preset conditions, ensuring that the system being built meets the requirements and is delivered on time. . .
Termination criteria may include: test case coverage, outstanding issues by priority and/or severity, feature coverage, deadlines, business requirements, etc.
From the example, we can see that the exit criteria must be strict, but still reasonable. It may not be realistic to expect that 100 percent of all tests will pass all the time, but we must ensure that there are no critical errors that could cause the system not to work or the user to stop being able to use the system in the expected way.
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Define the minimum number of test cases required for full declaration, branch, and path coverage for the following code snippet:
To get the number of test cases for full coverage, 100 percent statements, we need to find the minimum number of paths where all the nodes are located. If we follow the path 1-A-2-C-3-E-4-F-G-5-I-6-J we will have covered all the nodes (1-2-3-4-5-6), so satisfy all the statements in the code with one test case. But since the two statements (nodes 2 and 5) collide, a single test case doesn’t work for the code in question. We need two test cases to fully cover each assertion:
, which essentially covers all possible true and false statements. By using the same two paths around the entire sentence, we can achieve almost full branch coverage. The only branch not covered by these two paths is the “D” branch, which requires an additional path to the two previously mentioned. So our three tests will cover these routes:
Path scoping ensures that all possible paths are included in the code. Given the constraints of the theorem (X > 0 and X < 0), these are all possible paths:
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When a QA engineer creates a bug ticket, that ticket follows the sequence of states shown in the diagram from its creation until it is verified and closed. If the decision is not correct, the ticket can be moved back to a previous state or reopened to prevent closure.
Based on Reopen, what is the number of 0-switch transitions and how many 1-switch transitions are allowed?
State transition testing is a black box testing technique where changes in input conditions cause state changes in the application under test. The sum of 0 switch transitions from a state is equal to the sum of 1 length transitions starting from that state. From the diagram we can see that the possible transitions from Reopen are:
Comment 1 switch off
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