L Eau Et Le Développement Durable Pdf

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L Eau Et Le Développement Durable Pdf

L Eau Et Le Développement Durable Pdf

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Pdf) Eau Et Développement Durable

DOMESTIC SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND INDUSTRIAL WATER CONSUMPTION: WHAT EFFORT SHOULD BE MADE? The lack of potable water in some areas is in stark contrast to its excessive use in Western countries. Very   little   publicized,   the   problem   of   access   to   quality   water   is   aggravated   by   increasing   contamination   of   ground   and   surface water. In this article, we will not talk about the 3.2 million people who die every day from diseases related to bad water or the 3.2 million people who do not have access to water every year. We   will   not   detail   about   unacceptable   sanitary conditions,   such   as   the   Nile   being   polluted   by   industrial activities. Here is the question of being interested in the use of water in countries where running water is considered less wasteful. First, a brief assessment of water use in France will be carried out and then all possible solutions to reduce it will be investigated. Then we will see the industrial effort that needs to be launched to reduce water consumption in the special field of energy. It will not be about advocating a return to nature. On the contrary, technical and social solutions must be implemented that would allow a change in our consumption, without changing our comfort, or even without . SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT APRIL 2014 Excessive domestic consumption A French person consumes an average of 151 liters of water per day. counting   all   common   uses   (schools,   hospitals,   street washing, etc.),   we   can   estimate   that   this   consumption   amounts   to   200   litres. Only the shower takes 40% of this consumption and 20% is dedicated to sanitation. Solutions to excessive water use should be sought on two levels, one technical and the other social. There  is  no  lack  of  technological  innovations. Four  simple  methods  would  significantly  reduce  our  consumption:  mixer,  consumption  screen,  closed  circulation  and  additional  reservoir. • Conventional mixers and jet switches that control shower flow allow the shower usage to be shared by two. Today, in France, according to a survey carried out by INSEE in February 2013, only 56% of showers are equipped with these devices. • Then it is a question of raising consumer awareness. A screen that shows the amount of water used – the consumption screen – in the shower would help to reduce shower time. The psychological effects of immediate consumption may be found to be relevant to consumption responses. Water consumption in France • New  systems  were  invented  in  a  closed  circulation:  during  the  first  3  different  minutes  in the shower,  the water  is  actually  5% we counted it in a black toilet  , after 7% hours. often 31% Washing machine   almost   clean. So   it         11% bathtubs and showers   filtered   directly   in   order   to     return   through   the   shower:   this   Car wash 30% allows     reduction     of   water   Water     shower   of   70% shower. Dishes             Body Care • Finally,  how  many  liters  of  water  we  used  while  waiting  for  hot  water  to  come  under  the  shower”? It often takes 30 seconds, which is tens of liters. This is why a small additional tank near the shower would provide hot water almost instantly: this mechanism is for sale in France to users because the price of water is insignificant: 3.4 euros per m3 of water. All  these  methods  can  of course  be restrictive,  especially  for  closed  channels  or  dual  water channels  and  particularly  expensive  to  install. However, the savings achieved on the water bill are not negligible, making these systems sustainable after several years of use. 2 2 1 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT APRIL 2014 Energy, the leading user of water Ø The   role   of   water   in   the   production   of   energy? Ø What are the consequences of the interdependence of water and energy? Unlike some energy sources, water cannot be replaced. Currently, the energy field uses no less than 58% of fresh water taken for cooling. Water is also necessary for fuel production: it is found in the reservoir, in drilling and hydraulic fracturing (for cracking the rock and mining the rock). Thus, a significant amount of water is required for the production of hydrocarbons (the production of oil corresponds to 10 L of water); and in addition to being water-intensive, the use of these carbohydrates increases the release of CO2 and thus contributes to global warming. Water is also involved in refineries, for boilers, cold hydrocarbons (65% of water consumed in a refinery is used for cooling) and limiting oil content before limiting oil content. Let’s  match  these  numbers  with  these

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